Al-Imām Muhy al-Dīn Abū Zakariyyā Yahyā ibn Sharaf al-Nawawī (more commonly known as Imam Nawawi), was born in the village of Nawa on the Horan Plain of southern Syria in 631 H.
He was the imām of the later Shāfiʿī School, the scholar of his time in knowledge, piety, and abstinence, a hadīth master (hāfiẓ), biographer, lexicologist, and Sufi.
When he first came to Damascus in 649 H., he memorized the text of al-Imām Abū Ishaq al-Shīrāzī; al-Tanbīh in four and a half months, then the first quarter of al-Muhadhdhab, after which he accompanied his father on ḥajj, then visited Madīnah, and then returned to Damascus, where he assiduously devoted himself to mastering the Islāmic sciences.
He took Shāfiʿī Law, hadīth, tenets of faith, fundamentals of jurisprudence, Arabic and other subjects from more than twenty-two scholars of the time, including Abū Ibrāhīm Ishaq al-Maghrībī, ʿAbd al-Rahman ibn Qudāmah al-Maqdisī, and others, at a period of his life in which, as al-Imām al-Dhahabī notes,“his dedication to learning, night and day, became proverbial.”
Spending all his time in either worship or gaining Sacred Knowledge, he took some twelve lessons a day, only dozed off in the night at moments when sleep overcame him, and drilled himself on the lessons he learned by heart while walking along the street.
Fastidious in detail and deep in understanding of the subjects he thus mastered. He authored many great works in Shāfiʿī jurisprudence, hadīth, history, and legal opinion, among the best known of which are his Minhāj al-ṭālibīn, which has become a main reference for the Shāfiʿī School, Riyāḍ al-ṣālihīn and Kitab al-adhkār in hadīth, and his eighteen-volume Sharh Ṣahīh Muslim.
He lived simply, and it is related that his entire wardrobe consisted of a turban and an ankle-length shirt with a single button at the collar.
Death of Imam Nawawi
After a residence in Damascus of twenty-seven years, he returned the books he had borrowed from charitable endowments, bade his friends farewell, visited the graves of his Shaykhs who had died, and departed, going first to Jerusalem and then to his native Nawa, where he became ill at his father’s home and died at forty-four years of age in 676 H, young in years but great in benefit to Islām and the Muslims.
The complete name of Imam Nawawi is Abu Zakaria Mohiuddin Yahya, son of Sharaf An-Nawawi, son of Murry, son of Hassan, son of Hussain, son of Muhammad, son of Juma, son of Hazam. Nawawi refers to Nawa, a place near Damascus, in the suburb of the city of Howran. One of his ancestors named Hazam had settled at this place. Imam Nawawi was born at Nawa in the year 631 A.H. His father, a virtuous and pious man, resolved to arrange for proper and befitting education as he had discovered the symptoms of heavenly intelligence and wisdom in his promising child at an early stage.
Shaikh Yasin bin Yousuf Marakashi, a saintly figure of Nawa says: “I saw Imam Nawawi at Nawa when he was a youth of ten years of age. Other boys of his age used to force him to play with them, but Imam Nawawi would always avoid the play and would remain busy with the recitation of the Noble Qur’an. When they tried to domineer and insisted on his joining their games, he bewailed and expressed his no concern over their foolish action. On observing his sagacity and profundity, a special love and affection developed in my heart for young Nawawi. I approached his teacher and urged him to take exceptional care of this lad as he was to become a great religious scholar and most pious saint of future. His teacher asked whether I was a soothsayer or an astrologer. I told him I am neither soothsayer nor an astrologer but Allah caused me to utter these words.” His teacher conveyed this incident to Imam’s father and he keeping in view the learning quest of his son, decided to dedicate the life of his son for the service and promotion of the cause of Islamic Faith.
In a short period, Nawawi learnt to read the Holy Qur’an and by that time he nearly had attained puberty. Nawa had no academic or scholarly atmosphere and there were no religious academies or institutes where one could earn excellence in religious learning, so his father took him to Damascus, which was considered the center of learning and scholarship, and the students from far and wide gathered there for schooling. During that period, there were more than three hundred institutes, colleges and universities in Damascus. Imam Nawawi joined Madrasah Rawahiyah which was affiliated with the Ummvi University. The founder and patron of this Madrasah was a trader named Zakiuddin Abul-Qassim who was known as Ibn Rawahah. Madrasah was named after him. Noted and eminent teachers of the period taught in that Madrasah. Imam Nawawi says, “I studied in this institution for two years. During my stay in Madrasah Rawahiyah, I never had complete rest and lived on the limited food supplied by the institution.” As a routine he used to sleep very little at night. When it became irresistible as a human being, he would lean and slumber for a while against the support of books. After a short duration he would again be hard at his scholastic pursuits.
His Teachers and Guides:
During his stay at Damascus, he studied from more than twenty celebrated teachers. These teachers were regarded as masters and authority of their subject field and disciplines they taught. Imam studied Hadith, Islamic Jurisprudence, its principles, syntax and Etymology from great scholars of his time. Abu Ibrahim Ishaq bin Ahmad AI-Maghribi, Abu Muhammad Abdur-Rahman bin Ibrahim Al-Fazari, Radiyuddin Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Abu Hafs Umar bin Mudar Al-Mudari, Abu Ishaq Ibrahim bin Isa Al-Muradi, Abul-Baqa Khalid bin Yusuf An-Nablusi, Abul-Abbas Ahmad bin Salim Al-Misri, Abu Abdullah Al-Jiyani, Abul-Fath Umar bin Bandar, Abu Muhammad At-Tanukhi, Sharafuddin Abdul-Aziz bin Muhammad Al-Ansari, Abul-Faraj Abdur-Rahman bin Muhammad bin Ahmad Al-Maqdisi, Abul-Fada’il Sallar bin Al-Hasan Al Arbali etc.
There were hundreds of Imam’s students, among them some notables are: Alauddin bin Attar, Ibn Abbas Ahmad bin Ibrahim, Abul-Abbas Al-Ja’fari, Abul-Abbas Ahmad bin Farah, Rashid Ismail bin Mu’allim Al-Hanafi, Abu Abdullah Al-Hanbali, AbulAbbas Al-Wasti, Jamaluddin Sulaiman bin Omar Az-Zar’i, AbulFaraj Abdur-Rahman bin Muhammad bin Abdul-Hamid AlMaqdisi, Badr Muhammad bin Ibrahim, Shamsuddin Muhammad bin Abu Bakr, Ash-Shihab Muhammad bin Abdul-Khaliq, Hibatullah Al-Barizi, Abul-Hajjaj Yusuf bin Az-Zaki etc.
His Desire and Crave for Learning:
Imam Nawawi had endless thirst for knowledge, and it can be guessed from his daily practice of studies. He used to read daily twelve lessons and write explanation and commentary of every lesson and also made important additions. Whatever the book Imam Nawawi read, he put down the marginal notes and explanations on that book. His intelligence, hard work, love, devotion and absorption in his-studies amazed his teachers and they become fond of him and began to praise and admire him. According to Imam Dhahabi, Imam Nawawi’s concentration and absorption in academic love gained proverbial fame. He had devoted all his time for learning and scholarship. Other than reading and writing, he spent his time contemplating on the interacted and complex issues and in finding their solutions. Allah had also conferred upon him the gift of fast memory and depth of thought, and he who makes the right use of this boon, there remains no doubt in his sagacity and discernment. Imam Nawawi made full benefit of his God given qualities and potentialities and earned the highest degree of honor.
Imam’s Simplicity and Niceness of Manners:
The learned persons, elite of the society and the public greatly respected the Imam on account of his piety, learning and excellent character. He used simple dress and ate simple food. Devout scholars do not care about worldly chattels, they give preference to religious and academic pursuits, propagation of Faith etc. They experience more heavenly delight and joy in such activities than those who seek satisfaction in luxurious foods, precious clothes and other worldly things. Imam Nawawi had a prominent place among the erudite notables of his age. He was God-fearing person having illustrious and glorious aims regarding propagation of Faith. Celebrated Sheikh Mohiuddin expresses his impression about Imam Nawawi as thus: “Imam Nawawi had three distinctive commendable qualities in his person. If anybody have only one out of these three, people return to him in abundance for guidance. First, having knowledge and its dissemination. Second, to evade completely from the worldly inclinations, and the third, inviting to all that is good (Islam) enjoining Al-Ma’ruf [i.e., Islamic Monotheism and all that Islam orders one to do] and forbidding Al-Munkar [polytheism and disbelief and all that Islam has forbidden]. Imam Nawawi had all three in him.”
Imam Nawawi’s works and his death
The learned Imam had a very short life but even during this short period, he had written a large number of books on different subjects. Every work of the Imam is a masterwork and a treasure of knowledge. Hundreds and thousands of people benefit from these works.
Some of the Prestigious Works of Imam Nawawi are:
Commentary on Sahih Al-Bukhari, Al-Minhaj fi Sharh Sahih Muslim, Riyad-us-Saliheen, Kitab-ur-Raudah, Commentary on Mohadhdhab, Tahdhib-ul-Asma was-Sifat, Kitab-ul-Adhkar, Arba’een, At-Taqreeb fi Ilmil-Hadith wal-Irshad fihi, Kitab-ulMubhamat, At-Tibyan, Al-Idah fi Manasikil-Hajj, Sharh Sahih AlBukhari (Naqis), Sharh Sunan Abi Dawud (Naqis), Tabaqat Ash Shafi’iyah, Muhimmatul-Ahkam, Manaqib-ush-Shafi’i, Bustan-ulArifeen, Al-Khulasatu fil-Hadith, Mukhtasar At-Tirmidhi, A1Masa’il Al-Manthurah, Al-‘Umdah fi Tashihit-Tanbih and others.
After spending 28 years of age, Imam Nawawi returned to his hometown. Soon after his arrival at Nawa, he felt ill and died. Imam Nawawi is still living in the hearts of Muslims. His works are of everlasting value. May Allah bless Imam Nawawi.
Source: Central Mosque
Shah Wali-u Allah was born on 4th Shawwaal, 1114 / 21 February 1703 1703 at Phulat in Delhi. His ancestors had migrated from Arabia to Iran for reasons not known. Later on when the invasion of the Tatars caused widely spread terror and destruction in Iraq and Iran, the forefathers of the Shah are said to have migrated to India and found their settlement here at Rohtak village. His grandfather was a gallant soldier in the Mughal army and a deep lover of the Qur’aan. Shaykh Abdur-Rahim was Shah Wali-u Allah’s father, the pupil of a great scholar and sufi – Zahid Herawi. Abdur-Rahim was famous for his profound knowledge of the traditions and Islamic jurisprudence. That is why he was offered the service in the government to revise Fataawa Alamgiri which he undertook at the instance of his mother. He was also famous for found his seminary, Madrasah-e-Rahimiyyah in Delhi the forerunner of the present Darul Uloom Deoband. Shaykh Abdur-Rahim had interests in mysticism yet he did not ignore the practical aspects of life. In the home of such a pious and learned father, the Shah grew up to great heights of eminence.
At the age of five, the Shah had his first lesson at school. After two years he learnt reading and writing. He learnt the Qur’aan by heart upto the age of ten. At the age of fourteen years he read a part of Bauzayi and the major part of Mishkawah. He got the graduation from Rahimiyyah college at the age of fifteen. The prescribed syllabus of the college laid great stress on the Qur’aanic studies with lesser aid from commentaries and the Shah himself felt thankful to God for being provided with opportunity to lecture on the lessons of the Qur’aan which opened the doors of its knowledge for him. The other sciences like the Hadith, Fiqh, logic, etc. were also learnt by the Shah. He became the teacher of this very college of his father at the age of seventeen. Only two years later, his father died and the management work of the school fell upon him. The Shah took up the task with devotion and attained the help of the old graduates of the college. He prepared his lectures after extensive study on various Islamic disciplines and sciences. and provided guidance on the problems of varied nature. While sitting on the grave of his father in pious meditation, he sought solutions of the spiritual problems. ‘When I sat meditating,’ he reports, ‘at the grave of my father, problems of Tawhid (oneness of God) were solved. The path of the divine attraction (Jazb) was opened; and a large share of Saluk (spiritual journey) fall to my lot, and inspirational knowledge (Uloom-e-Wajdaniyyah) thronged the mind with it.’ Through his study of standard Fiqh literature and Hadith books, the Shah came to the conclusion that the institution of Fuqaha-e-Muhadditheen (jurisprudents who drew heavily upon traditions of the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) was an adequate one that he would adhere to in his future life.
Shah Wali-u Allah’s journey to Hijaaz in October 24 1730 / 8 Rabi-as-Thaani 1143 proved a turning point in his career. It was the time when the Indian subcontinent was undergoing a deep crisis consequent upon the declining fortunes of the Mughal empire. Under such conditions there was growing an indifference towards religion. The sectarian conflicts had become the order of the day. Sufism had generated and various evils had crept into the society as a result of the practices of the false Sufis. The sensitive mind of the Shah was deeply moved by the deplorable situation prevailing in India and his journey to Hijaaz had much to do with this preoccupation of the scholar. In Hijaaz, the Shah stayed for about two years, performed Hajj twice at Makkah and also spent sometime at the Prophet’s tomb in Madinah. Besides acquainting himself with the general condition of the Muslim world during his stay in Hijaaz, the Shah also received lessons on the Qur’aan and the Hadith and thereby was able to attain considerable guidance in the spiritual matters. He read from the scholars of repute, Muatta of Imaam Maalik with Shaykh Wafadullah and Bukhari of Imaam Bukhari with Shaykh Taj-al-Din Hanafi, the Mufti (juri consultant) of Makkah. At Madinah, the Shah attended to Shaykh Ibrahim Kurdi, an eminent traditionist and sufi, and revised all famous books on Hadith under his guidance. Shaykh Abu Tahir, another great theologian in Madinah, also guided the Shah in the science of Hadith.
It can hardly be denied that Shah Shah Wali-u Allah’s sojourn to Hijaaz proved to be a landmark in his spiritual development. He himself mentions many spiritual blessings and experiences in His Fuyuz al-Haramayn. He received them in a series of visions at the precincts of the holy Ka’abah and the holy tomb of Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam). In these visions include the task of the revival of Islam entrusted to the Shah by the grandsons of the prophet, the intelligibility of the most controversial problems of ontological versus phenomenological monism, clearance of doubts on the controversial issues relating to solidarity and development of the Muslim institutions. A.D. Muztar has eloquently described this enlightenment of Shah Wali-u Allah in the following words:
The prophet cleared his doubts concerning them in a series of visions. For example, the prophet (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam) told Shah Wali-u Allah.
1. The order of succession of the Khulafa-e-Raashideen (the four immediate successors of the prophet) had taken place under the will and pleasure of God. It was best suited to the interests of Muslim community and so far as the personal excellence of these four companions of the prophet was concerned, all of them were blessed with qualities and stations special to each of them. The contentions over the attributive supremacy of Ali on the one hand and of Abu Bakr and Umar (Shaykhayn) on the other, were just useless and needless. Such a controversy was apt to create hatred and disharmony among the Muslims.
2. All the mystic orders, such as (Chishti, Naqshabandi, Qadiri, Suhrawardi, etc.) were equally acceptable to God. Nor was the prophet of God especially inclined towards any particular order. One may follow any or all of them with the only proviso that they were followed for the sake of God Almighty.
3. None of the schools of Jurists, Maaliki, Hanafi, Shaaf’ee and Hanbali, excelled the other. All of them were fundamentally the same. Therefore, all were equal in the eyes of the Prophet … It was further revealed to him that in conveying his message to the nation and share their responsibilities; he benign and compassionate in his speeches and writings; and pray for what was good for the people in their world life and the life hereafter.
After the Shah’s return to Delhi, he addressed himself to the task of bringing about the revival of Islamic sciences for the general good of Muslims. He made useful reforms in the studies at Rahimiyyah college in order to impart such teaching and training to the pupil as could enable them to relate true religious education to the practical needs of the people. The wrong beliefs and customs, associated with Islam, were reformed through the Shah’s translation of the Qur’aan into Persian which made the people to understand its actual message. His Tafhimat-I-Ilaahiyya and Hama’at played a great role in clearing off the doubts about the innovations in Sufism. The interpretation of Islamic system comprising beliefs and Ibaadat, social, political and economic matters, was made by the Shah under the new and growing exigencies of his time. Al-Badur al-Bazigah, Hujjatul Allah al-Baaligha, al-Insaaf fee sabab bayaan al-Ikhtilaaf, etc. clearly demonstrate the deep concern of the Shah in bringing about the revival of Islamic sciences in accordance with the needs of the Muslim society in the Indian context.
The resurgence of Islamic political thought marks an outstanding feature of Shah Wali-u Allah’s Islamic revivalism. The Ummah in general and the Indian Muslim in particular were exposed to the internal and the external threats. The so often controversies over the standpoints of the Shi’as and the Sunnis, luxurious and lethargic habits in the Mughal bureaucracy in the capital, rapid growth of the Maratha power, the Jats, the Sikhs and above all the intrusion of the Western imperialistic influences had undermined the solidarity of the Indian Muslims. Their disdain and disunity was further affected by their indulgence in the conflicts of sectarian, jurisprudential schools of law, heterodoxy and orthodoxy nature. The Shah sensitively reacted to these problems of political confusion and instability of Muslims of the Indian subcontinent. He attempted considerably for the purification and the revitalisation of this political deterioration. His expositions on the political thought mark his rational approach to human history and his critical interpretation of the classical history of Islam.
Political Thought of Shah Wali-u Allah – an Analytical Study
source: Madrassah In’aamiyyah
Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Majah (r.a) – [209 – 273 A.H.]
Imam Ibn Majah was born in the city of Qazvin in the northern Persian province of Dailam. After gaining ahadith from the many great religious scholars of his city, he travelled to seek knowledge at the young age of 21. Imam Ibn Majah is said to have visited Basrah, Kufah, Baghdad, the Hijaz, Makkah, Syria and Egypt to hear and gather ahadith.
Amongst his teachers were Jabbara ibn al Mughlis, Ibrahim ibn al-Munzar, Hisham ibn Umar and more Abu Bakr ibn Shaibah.
Ibn Khallikan writes that Imam ibn Majah held the position of an Imam in the subject of hadith.
Abu al-Ali Khalili says he was a great scholar of Qur’anic exegesis, ahadith and history.
Adh Dhahabi stated that he was a hafiz and warehouse of Prophetic knowledge.
Imam ibn Majah is known to have authored 3 books, popularly known Sunan ibn Majah, at-Tafsir and at-Tarikh.
Imam Ibn Majah departed from this world during the blessed month of Ramadan 273 A.H. in Qazvin, the city of his birth.
May Allah Ta’ala fill his Qabar with Noor.
Source: Scholars of Hadith by Syed Bashir Ali
Ahmad ibn Shu’aib an-Nasa’i (r.a) – [215 – 303 A.H.]
Imam an-Nasa’i was born in the town of Nasa’ in the Persian province of Khorasan. After gaining hadith from the teachers his own city, Imam an-Nasa’i travelled through Khorasan, Iraq, the Hijaz Syria and Egypt gaining ahadith. Egypt was where Imam an-Nasa’i settled and established his center for teaching and studies here.
Imam an-Nasa’i was said to have exhausted many of his days and nights in prayers, repeatedly performed Hajj and also joined the Muslim army to participate in battle. He was very particular of the Sunnah of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), had a hatred for deviation and avoided the circles of kings and nobles.
Imam Nasa’i’s status
Ibn Khallikan writes ‘He was the Imam of hadith of his age.’
Daraqutni says ‘He was more distinguished than all the muhaddithun of his time.’
He is well known for Sunan an-Nasa’i which is a collection of 5751 sound ahadith. In it he also describes the flaws of a hadith, exposes any disagreements on the title, names and kunyat of narrators and clarifies the variations between different versions of a hadith.
His teachers are many, the first being Muhaddith Qutaibah ibn Sa’id al Balkhi. Some others are Ishaq ibn Rahawaih, Muhammad ibn Nasr, Muhammad ibn Bishr and the famous Abu Dawud.
His students came from all over the Muslim world, and some of the more famous of them are Ali ibn Jafar at-Tahawi, Abul Qasim at-Tabrani, Muhammad ibn Mu’awiyah al Andalusi, Abu Jafar at-Tahani and also his own son.
Imam an-Nasa’i travelled to Damascus, Syria in 302 A.H. where he noticed people displaying some hostility towards Hazrat Ali (R.A). He therefore wrote a book to honor the character of Hazrat Ali (R.A) and started lecturing from it in a Masjid. He had only read a few lines when he was accused of being a Shi’i and was beaten badly by a crowd, such he received severe injuries to his body. In this state he requested some admirers to take him to Makkah, and it was after reaching Makkah Imam an-Nasa’i passed away.
Source: Scholars of Hadith by Syed Bashir Ali
May Allah Ta’ala fill Imam an-Nasa’i’s Qabar with Noor, Ameen.
Sulaiman ibn al-Ash’ath (Abu Dawud) (r.a) – [202 – 275 A.H.]
Abu Dawud was born in Sijistan. Little is known about his early life, but that he travelled to many regions and cities to hear and collect ahadith from many different scholars. Abu Dawud is also a distinguished Faqih as well as a Muhaddith. His knowledge of hadith is confirmed by the fact that he had amassed 500,000 ahadith, 5,400 of which he selected for Sunan Abu Dawud. Hakim at-Tirmidhi was of the opinion that Abu Dawud was without doubt the chief muhaddith of his time.
His teachers are estimated to number more than 300. This includes ibn Hanbal, ibn Mu’in, ibn Harab, Abd al-Wahid Tayalasi and ibn Ibrahim, who were also teachers of Imams Bukhari and Muslim.
The number of students in Abu Dawud’s classes would sometimes be in the thousands, Tirmidhi and an-Nasa’i being amongst them. Some other distinguished muhaddithun students of his were: Abu Bakr ibn Imam, Abu Ali Muhammad ibn Ahmad Lu’lu’wi, Abu Bakr Muhammad and Abu Sa’id Ahmad ibn Muhammad.
Abu Dawud used to say that for one to recognise the purpose of life and to practise religion properly, out of his sunan, 4 hadith would suffice:
The reward of deeds depends only intentions
Among you no one will be a true Muslim unless he wishes for his brother or his neighbour exactly that which he wishes for himself
The exquisiteness of ones Islam is that he avoids things that do not concern him and leaves what is not valuable to him
The lawful and unlawful are made clear, but there are in between them doubtful things which are not known to most of the people. One who keeps himself away from the doubtful things, protects his deen and honour, and he who indulges in doubtful acts commits unlawful deeds.
In the year 275A.H. in Basrah Abu Dawud departed from this world at the age of 73, and was buried next to Sufyan ath-Thawri. May Allah Ta’ala fill his Qabar with Noor.
Source: Scholars of Hadith
Imaam Tirmizi (R.A.) was born during the reign of the Abbasid Khalifa Mamoon al Rasheed. The Abbasid Caliphate, despite its brilliant contributions to Islaam, brought along with it many thorny problems. Greek Philosophy had a free flow into the Islamic world. This was fully sanctioned by the government until eventually it declared the Mu’tazila school of thought as the state religion. Anyone who opposed the Mu’tazila school of thought would be opposing the state. With the influence of Greek philosophy infiltrating within the people, many Muslims began attempting to reconcile between reason and revelation. As a result they deviated themselves and misled many innocent weak Muslims away from Allah and His Rasul [sallallahu alyhi wasallam]. Many scholars of Islaam had come to the fore in order to defend the Shariah. Forgeries and interpolations in Hadith by rulers who wished to fulfil their personal motives was common. In the first century Umar bin Abdul Aziz(R.A.) initiated a movement for the compilation of the Mubarak Hadeeth of Nabi [sallallahu alayhi wasallam] as there was a fear of it being lost. Eventually this gigantic task was undertaken by six towering scholars of Islaam. One of them was …….. Imaam Abu Isa Muhammed ibn Isa Tirmizi (R.A.)
Having grown up in an environment of learning, together with possessing many great qualities naturally drove Imaam Tirmizi (R.A.) to dedicate his life totally towards the field of Hadith. He obtained his basic knowledge at home and later travelled to far off lands in search of this great science. He studied Hadith under great personalities such as Imaam Bukhari (R.A.), Imaam Muslim (R.A.) and Imaam Abu Dawood (R.A.). In some narrations Imaam Bukhari and Imaam Muslim (R.A.) are his students as well. Once Imaam Bukhari (R.A.) mentioned to him “I have benefited more from you than you have benefitted from me.” Moosa ibn Alaq (R.A.) once said : “When Imaam Bukhari passed away, he left no one in Khurasaan who compared with Abu Isa Tirmizi (R.A.) in Ilm, memory, piety and abstinence.” According to Abdullah ibn Muhammed Al-Ansaari (R.A.), Imaam Tirmizi’s Al-Jami is more beneficial than the works of Bukhari and Muslim (R.A.) since their compilations can only be understood by a very deep sighted scholar whereas Al Jami can be understood by both the scholar and the lay man. Imaam Tirmizi (R.A.) said that he compiled this book and presented it to the learned of Hejaaz, Iraaq and Khuraasaan and they were pleased with it. Who ever has this book in his home, it is as though he has the Prophet [sallallahu alyhi wasallam] speaking to him there.
His remarkable memory:
Imaam Tirmizi (R.A.) had an exceptionally remarkable memory. If he heard something once he never forgot it. Once on his way to Makkah, Imaam Tirmizi(R.A.) met a Muhadith from whom he had previously copied two chapters of hadith. Thinking that he had the notes with him he asked the Muhadith if he would allow him to read out these two chapters so that he may correct any errors. After realizing that he did not have those notes with him he took a blank piece of paper and read out the entire two parts from memory. When the Muhadith realized what he was doing he rebuked Imam Tirmizi (R.A.) saying: “Have you no shame, Why are you wasting my time.” Imaam Tirmizi (R.A.) assured him that he had committed all the ahadith to memory. The Muhadith was not convinced, even though he recited all the Ahadith from memory. Imaam Tirmizi (R.A.) requested him to recite to him some other Ahadith. The Muhaddith recited 40 ahadith which Imaam Tirmizi (R.A.) repeated without making a single error, thus showing his remarkable power of committing Ahadith to memory.
Another incident has been recorded by Hakeemul Ummat (R.A.) in his Al-Misk-us-Zaki, depicting the profound memory of Imaam Tirmizi (R.A.). He writes:”Imaam Tirmizi (R.A.) had lost his sight towards the latter portion of his life. Once whilst on a journey, at a certain point he bowed his head. When asked as to why he did this, he replied: “Is there not a tree here whose branches hang over in such a manner that it harms those who are passing by.” They answered in the negative. He was quite shocked when he heard this as he distinctly remembered there being a tree and was worried as to whether his memory was failing him or not. He stopped the caravan immediately and asked his companions to enquire from the locals whether a tree had existed there or not. “If it is established that no tree existed then I will stop narrating the Hadith of Nabi [sallallahu alyhi wasallam] due to my weak memory.” On inquiry it was shown to them that a tree had previously existed over there but due to it being a hindrance to travelers it was removed.”
Imaam Tirmizi (R.A.) had a large number of students from all over the world. The most famous amongst them were Haysam ibn Kulaib (R.A.), Abul Abbaas (R.A.) and Muhammed ibn Ahmed (R.A.) Shah Abdul Aziz (R.A.) describes Imaam Tirmizi (R.A.) in the following words: “His memory was unique and his piety and fear of Allah Ta’la was of a very high caliber. He would cry so much out of the fear of Allah, that towards the end of his life he lost his sight.”
According to Ibn Taimiya (R.A.) and Shah Waliullah (R.A.), Imaam Timizi (R.A.) was an independent Jurist (Mujtahid). Hazrat Moulana Anwar Shah Kashmiri (R.A.) is of the opinion that he was a Shafi.
In the year 279 A.H. in a village called Bawag at the ripe age of 70 , Imaam Tirmizi (R.A.) left this temporary abode for the ever lasting life of the hereafter. May Allah Ta’ala fill his Qabar with Noor. Aameen. The enormity of his sacrifices and the extent to which he served Deen can never be fully comprehended.
Many books of hadith were compiled before Imaam Tirmizi (R.A.) decided to compile His Al-Jami. Dawood Tayalisi (R.A.) and Ahmed ibn Hambal (R.A.) had compiled books consisting of both authentic and weak Ahadith. Later Imaam Bukhari (R.A.) compiled his Sahih Bukhari and omitted all weak narrations from it. His main objective was to derive masail / laws from the relevant Ahadith. Later Muslim (R.A.) compiled his book concentrating mainly on the Isnaad (different chain of narrators). Hazrat Imaam Nasai’s aim was to mention the discrepancies of the hadith whilst Abu Dawood (R.A.) prepared such a book which became the basis for the Fuqaha. Imaam Tirmizi (R.A.) had combined the styles of Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood and Nasai (R.A.) by mentioning the discrepancies regarding the narrators and also making his compilation a basis for the Jurists.
Extract from Life and works of Imam Tirmizi (RA) from Central-Mosque.com
His name was Abul-Hussain Muslim-bin-Habaj al Nishapuri. He was born in a distinguished family of Arab Muslims in Khorasan which. was a famous town of Russia. Imam Muslim was born in 817 A.D. corresponding to the Islamic year 204 A.H. His forefathers occupied prominent positions during the time of the four Caliphs. He travelled to many places with the object of learning Hadith, and after completing his studies in the various centres of learning, he settled at Nishapur. He spend the rest of his life teaching Hadith.
Imam Muslim started his studies at the very early age of fourteen years. In the year 218 A.H. the atmosphere in Nishapur, his birthplace, was of a religious and knowledge type. Nishapur had great personalities in this period such as lmaam Rahiwe and lmaam Zohri. After travelling widely in search of Hadith, he settled in Nishapur as mentioned above. Imam Muslim was much impressed by the vast knowledge of Imaam Bukhari (R.A.), in the field of Hadith and the deep insight he possessed on this subject. He therefore attached himself to Imaam Bukhari (R.A.) up to the end of his life. Imam Muslim was also an admirer of another great teacher of Hadith, Muhammed bin Yahya al Dhuli. He attended his lectures regularly. He visited Baghdad several times and had the opportunity of delivering lessons there. His last visit to Baghdad was two years before his death.
IMAM MUSLIM’S TEACHERS
Imam Muslim (R.A.) apart from attending the lessons of Imaam Bukhari regularly, also attended the lectures of lmaam Ahmad bin Hambal, Abdullah al Qarri, Qutaiba bin Said, Abdullah bin Maslama and other great Muhadith.
IMAM MUSLIM’S STUDENTS
Imam Muslim (R.A.’s) most noted students are Hatim Razi, Ahrnad bin Salmah, Abu Isa Tinnizi, Abubaker bin Khuzaima and other great scholars.
CHARACTER AND KNOWLEDGE
Imam Muslim R.A. adhered strictly to the path of righteousness. He was in fact a great saint of a very high calibre. His excellent character can be well judged from the simple fact that he never ever indulged in backbiting, a very common human failing. He had a remarkable memory. Ishaq bin Rahwi said of Imam Muslim; ” I wonder what this person is going to be?” This was said in his youth. Ishaq Kausar once addressed lmam Muslim (R.A.) and said; “Your presence in the Muslim community will always keep it in the good. ” Abu Saimah who was a colleague of lmam Muslim was so attached to him that while lmaam Sahib was busy compiling the Sahih Muslim, he remained in lmaam Sahib’s company for fifteen years. He never told a lie nor did he ever use vulgar words.
Sheikh Abdul Latief says Imaam Tirmidhi and Imam Muslim were followers of the Shafee school of thought, although they were both Mujtahids. Moulana Abdur-Rashid says that Imaam Muslim was a Maliki. The fact is what was said by Sheikh Tahir Jazari that Imam Muslim is not a Maliki nor a Hanifi nor a Shafi, but his compilation of the sahih Muslim shows that he was more inclined towards the Shafee school of thought.
SAHIH OF IMAM MUSLIM
Allamah Nabawi (R.A.) says that the Ummat have accepted the Bukhari Shareef and Muslim Shareef as the Kitabs, which follow the Quraan, in authenicity although the Bukhari is regarded as holding a higher position than the Sahih Muslim for specific reasons, the sequence applied in the Muslim is much better than that of Bukhari. It is known as Al-Jamah as Sahih because it contains the eight different subjects on Hadis.
AL-JAMAH AS SAHIH MUSLIM
Imam Bukhari (R.A.) concentrated his efforts on compilation of authentic hadith as well as deduction of Laws from Hadith. This is the most difficult part to understand in the Bukhari. How he deduced Laws from the Hadis, Imam Muslim concentrated his efforts only on compilation of authentic Hadith.
Throughout the history of Islam there have been renowned personalities who have dedicated their life to the preservation of Islam against the tide of disbelief and deviation. In the early period of Islam, the preservation of the Hadith (traditions) was an indispensable element, which needed to be preserved in order to safeguard the deen (religion). Thus, Abdullah Ibn Mubarak was one of these personalities who ensured that Islam was presented to us today in the same form it had been 1400 years ago.
Abdullah Ibn Mubarak was born in 118 hegira / 726 CE, in the town of Marwa. In his childhood he studied elementary subjects, such as writing and arithmetic, which were considered as essential. Thereafter, his life took an unusual turn, thus, he became occupied in the pleasures of the world. He lived a luxurious life of jest and play, until one night, when he received a wake up call from Allah Ta’lah. As a routine custom one-day he invited his friends for a party in his orchard, here, they played and joked until they were overpowered by sleep. However, unlike before, in his sleep he saw a bird perched on the tree reciting a verse in which Allah Ta’lah sends an admonition to his servants:
Has not the time come for the hearts of those who believe to be affected by the reminder of Allah, and that, which has been revealed of the truth. (Quran 57:16)
The message carried by this majestic verse was so profound that it led Abdullah Ibn Mubarak to discard the comforts of this temporary world in order to search for eternal bliss. He instigated his thoughts into actions by, firstly, breaking the musical instrument he had in his hand and this was his first step in Zuhad (asceticism).
Abdullah Ibn Mubarak was now on a new path in search of sacred knowledge, especially Hadith (traditions). He travelled the entire Islamic world in order to preserve Hadith, until Abu Usama declared that ‘I have not seen a person searching for Hadith throughout the corners of the world like Abdullah ibn Mubarak. Consequently, he became the undisputed authority in the science transmitting Hadith (traditions). He attained such a lofty rank that the critics of this science unanimously agreed on the fact that he was of a sound nature and a possessor of an extraordinary memory. To achieve such acceptance is unparalleled in the history of Islam; however, this status was necessary for a person who was to be the torch barer of the Hadith. The renowned scholar of critical analysis of transmitters, Yahya Bin Maeen, has wonderfully illustrated his noble traits:
He (Abdullah ibn Mubarak) was intelligent, cautious (in narrating Hadith), trustworthy and a true scholar of Hadith. It is sufficient to know (his status) that many narrated from him, thus he is one of the narrators of Imam Bukhari and the rigorous conditions applied by Imam Bukhari in the verification and sound nature of a narrator is all well known, therefore there is no reason to expound on it.
Hence, he was a firm pillar in the establishment of Hadith, so whenever there was a narration he would take extreme measures to ensure the authenticity of Hadith before he would narrate it. This is why his legendary statement still resonates today in the hearts and minds of the scholars of Hadith that ‘Isnad (the chain of narration) is a part of Deen (religion), if there was no Isnad, then everyone would say what they desired’. Thus, everyone, including the king knew his extreme precaution. Thus, the Abbasi King Haroon Al-Rashid once retorted to an atheist that was brought on trial, who had claimed to have fabricated over one thousand Hadith, none of which were established;
‘What is your rank in compression to Ishaq Al-Farazi and Abdullah ibn Mubarak? O Enemy of Allah! They will separate them through a sieve, letter for letter (from the collection of Hadith)’.
Not only did Abdullah ibn Mubarak gain proficiency in Hadith, but also in Fiqh (jurisprudence) he was a master in his field. The fact that he studied under the greatest living jurists of his time, including men like Imam Abu Hanifa, Imam Malik and Sufyan Thawri, shows that he had developed an appreciation of this science.
He was also praised for being a prolific writer in his time; Imam Dhahabi states that his books include Kitab Al-Arbaeen, Kitab Tareek, Kitab Jihad and Kitab Zuhad wa Raqaiq. Unfortunately all of his written works are not published today.
One of his greatest assets was his Zuhad (asceticism) and the desire for the hereafter. Even though, he had an annual yearly income in excess of one thousand Dinars. All of which he spent in the path of Allah. This is exemplified in his excursions to Makkah for Hajj, while on the journey he would lavishly spend on his associates and fellow travellers despite the fact that he was continuously fasting.
Finally, in the year 181 hegira / 797 CE, during the month of Ramadan Abdullah ibn Mubarak departed the world while striving hard in the path of Allah. The endeavours he took during his life are numerous and cannot be covered here. However, a glimpse into the life of this great Imam testifies how taking precaution in the narration and narrators preserved the Hadith from being marred with taint. We are therefore indebted to the service rendered by our pious predecessors who fulfilled their rights upon us and especially Abdullah ibn Mubarak.
Who is not aware of Hadhrat Imam Bukhari (R.A) and his kitaab ‘Saheehul- Bukhari’?
However in this present day, the majority of Muslims use his kitaab to refer to whenever in need of a supporting reference for their actions or deeds without the knowledge of the life of the great author.
The famous and respected Muhaddith, Imam Bukhari’s (R.A) genealogy is as follows: Mohammed Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn Mugheera Ibn Bardizbah.
His father Ismail was a well-known and famous Muhaddith in his time and had been blessed with the chance of being in the company of Imam Malik, Hammad Ibn Zaid and also Abdullah Ibn Mubarak (R.A.).
Imam Bukhari’s Birth
Imam Bukhari (R.A) was born on the blessed day of Friday 13 Shawwaal 194 (A.H). He had lost the use of his eyes in the early stages of his childhood. However, due to the pious and lengthy prayers of his mother his eyesight was returned miraculously. The news had reached his mother through a dream in which Hadhrat Ibrahim (A.S) had appeared and said, “Due to your bountiful and sacred prayers Allah Ta’alaa has returned the eyesight of your son.”
The dream was proven to be true in the morning.
Ismail the father of Imam Bukhari (R.A) had died in Imam Bukhari’s childhood, leaving him in the care of his mother where he was nourished with love and care.
Imam Bukhari’s Education & Travel
At the age of sixteen after having memorized the compiled books of Imam Waki and Abdullah Ibn Mubarak, he performed Haj with his elder brother and mother. After the completion of Haj Imam Bukhari remained in Makkah for a further two years and upon reaching the age of eighteen headed for Medinah, and spent his nights next to the grave of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam compiling the books of ‘Qadhaayas-Sahaabah Wat-Taabi’een’ and ‘Taareekhul-Kabeer’ with the moonlight as a means of lighting.
Imam Bukhari (R.A) travelled a great deal in order to expand his knowledge. He made two trips to Syria and Egypt and stayed six years in Arabia. He also happened to return to Kufa, Baghdad and Basra four times and at times remained there for a period of five years. Also at Haj season he used to return to Makkah.
Imam Bukhari ( R.A) first started listening and learning ahaadeeth in 205 A.H., and after profiting from the Ulamaa of his town he started his travels in 210 A.H. There are a great number of teachers from whom Imam Bukhari (R.A) actually gained his much respected knowledge. It has been known to be said by Imam Bukhari (R..A) himself that, “I have written ahaadeeth from 1080 different people all of whom were scholars.” However, he profited most from Ishaq Ibn Rahway and Ali Ibn Madeeni (R.A). Imam Bukhari (R.A) has narrated ahaadeeth from Ulamaa of five different categories. He has also narrated ahaadeeth from his students believing in the fact that no person shall be titled a scholar of ahaadeeth until he has narrated from his elders, youngsters and contemporaries.
Imam Bukhari (R.A) also had a vast amount of students. It has been stated that approximately 9 000 people were privileged to sit in his lessons where he taught his Kitab ‘Sahih-Ul-Bukhari’. There were travellers amongst these from all corners of the world in order to join these pious sittings and to be honoured with a glimpse of the knowledge that he held and which never failed to astonish anybody.
Imam Bukhari’s Memory
Imam Bukhari’s (R.A) memory was considered to be inhuman, for as soon as the praying of a hadith would finish Imam Bukhari (R.A) would repeat it orally. It has been known that in his childhood he had memorized 2 000 ahaadeeth.
There is one spectacular incident which took place in Baghdad when Imam Bukhari (R.A) took up temporary residence there. The people having heard of his many accomplishments, and the attributes which were issued to him, decided to test him so as to make him prove himself to them. In order to do that they chose one hundred different ahaadeeth and changing the testimonials and the text of the ahaadeeth they were then recited by ten people to Imam Bukhari (R.A).
There was a crowd of gathered people from within and outside the city to witness the outcome of such a test. When the ahaadeeth were recited Imam Bukhari (R.A) replied to all in one manner, “Not to my knowledge.” However, after the completion of all the ahaadeeth Imam Bukhari (R.A) repeated each text and testimonial which had been changed followed by the correct text and testimonial, such was the memory of Imam Bukhari (R.A).
Imam Bukhari’s Abstinence
His abstinence was also an attribute which was incomparable and undauntless. He had been left a considerable amount of wealth by his father however, due to his generosity he spent it all in the path of Allah so that at the end he had been left with no money forcing him to spend his day on one or two almonds.
He never took advantage from the generosity of any king or ruler, although many occasions arose. Once he fell ill and when his urine was tested, the results showed that he had not consumed curry for a long time. Upon questioning he said, “I have not consumed curry for the last forty years.
The Governor of Bukhara made a special request for Imam Bukhari (R.A) to make daily visits to his home in order to teach his children. Imam Bukhari (R.A) declined stating that, “I give greater respect to knowledge rather than to people, for it is they who are in need of the knowledge and it is they who should seek it.”
Upon hearing this the Governor was further annoyed by Imam Bukhari’s (R.A) answer and made a second request that Imam Bukhari (R.A) make a special arrangement to teach his children alone without anyone else being present which was also refused by Imam Bukhari (R.A). The Governor was infuriated by the second refusal and ordered Imam Bukhari (R.A) out of Bukhara. The people of Samarqand hearing of this quickly issued an invitation to Imam Bukhari (R.A) to come to their town. However, there was also a difference of opinion within the people of Samarqand which forced Imam Bukhari (R.A) to turn towards Khartang.
It was here that he spent the month of Ramadaan and in the month of Shawwaal headed towards Samarqand, where death found him whilst he was traveling. Imam Bukhari died in the month of Shawwaal 256 A.H., at the age of 62.
(To Allah we belong and to Him we shall return.)
Works & Writings
There are a number of books compiled by Imam Bukhari (R.A) however, Bukhari Shareef has gained great esteem and a high status in the learning and praying of ahaadeeth.
A specific date has not been known as to when he had started the writing of Bukhari Shareef, however, we do know that after he had finished he had shown the manuscript to his teachers Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (R.A) for approval who died in 241 A.H, along with Ibnul-Madeeni who died in 234 A.H, and lastly Ibn Maeen who passed away in 233 A.H. It has also been recorded that it took the noble writer a period of 16 years to gather the ahaadeeth and to write Bukhari Shareef which sets the date back to 217 A.H, as the year in which he started the compilation; Imam Bukhari (R.A) being merely 23 years of age.
Before Imam Bukhari (R.A) had started to collect ahaadeeth there had actually been quite a few published books of ahaadeeth in which Imam Bukhari (R.A) found ahaadeeth of both weak and strong testimonials, which gave him the idea to compile such a kitaab containing ahaadeeth of only strong testimonials. Ishaaq Ibn Rahway (R.A) agreed to this idea which strengthened Imam Bukhari’s (R.A) decision.
Imam Bukhari (R.A) states, “There was once a time during one of our sessions when my teacher Ishaaq Ibn Rahway remarked it would be appreciated if someone could collect ahaadeeth which held strong and reliable testimonials and write them in the form of a kitaab.” This inspired Imam Bukhari (R.A) which was later strengthened by a dream in which Imam Bukhari (R.A) was positioned in front of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam with a fan in one hand to aid him in ridding the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam of all flies which would rest upon him. Upon waking, Imam Bukhari (R.A) visited several interpreters for an appropriate interpretation. They all answered that it meant he would in future cleanse the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam of all lies spoken by the people through narrating misunderstood ahaadeeth. This gave Imam Bukhari (R.A) great comfort and strength once he started the writing of his kitab Al-Jame-ul-Sahih. The complete name of the kitaab is ‘Al-Jame-ul-Sahih-al-Musnad-min-ahaadeethe-Rasulillah Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam-wa-sunanihi-wa-Ayyaamihi,’ which means a collected version of ahaadeeth in the form of a kitaab which relates to us the sayings, actions and the life of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam.
Imam Bukhari (R.A) had taken great care in writing the ahaadeeth and choosing those which met the standards and conditions which he set to find ahaadeeth with only strong testimonials which included only reliable and trustworthy testifiers. He spent 16 years in writing the kitaab, altering it a total of three times. Allaamah Ayni (R.A.) reports of Ibn Tahir’s remark that Imam Bukhari had written Sahih-ul-Bukhari in his hometown Bukhara. Ibn Bujair however, relates that he had started his compiling in Makkah, and some have reported of seeing him in Basra. There is still another differing remark made by others who comment on seeing him in Madinah to write his kitaab. However, we find Imam Bukhari (R.A) relating himself that he wrote Sahih-ul-Bukhari in Masjid-e-Haraam.
Before he actually placed a hadith in his compilation he used to perform ghusl and prayed to Allah through two rakah nafl prayers asking for guidance. Imam Bukhari ( R.A) worked such that only after being completely satisfied with the hadith in question did he give it a place in his kitaab. Due to this great care which was taken, the people were heard to say that the ahaadeeth which Imam Bukhari (R.A) has narrated have been so carefully phrased and with such precision that it is felt Imam Bukhari (R.A) had heard the ahaadeeth directly through the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam.
Abu Zaid Marwazi reports that I was once asleep in between the ‘Black stone’ and ‘Maqaam-e-Ibrahim’ when the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam appeared in my dream he stated, “O Abu Zaid! For how long shall you teach Imam Shafi’s (R.A) kitaab ? When shall you start the teaching of my kitaab ?”
I questioned, “O Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam! Which kitaab is yours?” He replied, “Mohammed Ibn Ismail’s Al-Jame-ul-Sahih.”
Hafiz Ibn Hajar (R.A) reports that Imam Bukhari (R.A) has kept it of utmost importance to only narrate ahaadeeth of a strong testimonial which can be proven by the name of the kitaab. However, along with this Imam Bukhari (R.A) also made an effort to explain all points which are difficult to understand, which is the reason why he has given a plentiful host of meanings for one sentence which may include a word that is in reality difficult to understand. Imam Bukhari (R.A) has included within his kitaab the art of narrating ahaadeeth which have been divided into eight different chapters. These chapters contain subjects which have been sub-titled and are famous for the ingenious way in which they have been phrased.
Imam Bukhari (R.A) has imposed conditions which all narrators and testifiers must meet before the hadith can be selected. One condition requires that all testifiers must have a strong memory.
There are also restrictions made upon this condition :
1. All the Muhadditheen who possess great knowledge of ahaadeeth must agree upon the testifiers’ in question ability to learn and memorize, along with his reporting techniques.
2. The testimonial must be complete without any missing testifiers.
3. If there are two different narrators of a hadith related to them by a Sahaabi then the hadith shall be given a high stage in rank. However, if only one narrator can be found and the testimonial proves to be a strong one then this shall be accepted without any doubts.
Allaamah Nawawi (R.A) relates that all scholars in Islam have agreed that Sahih-ul-Bukhari has earnestly gained the reward of being the most authentic after the Holy Qur’an. Sahih-ul-Bukhari consists of 7 275 ahaadeeth including those ahaadeeth which have been repeated. However, should the repeated ahaadeeth be excluded then the total number of ahaadeeth will be 4,000.
Hafiz Ibn Hajar counted the ahaadeeth and concluded that there was 7 397 where the ahaadeeth have been passed down from the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam directly and with the narrations of Sahabah or Tabi’een etc.; procuring a total of 9 407 ahaadeeth in all. Although after excluding the repetitions he found 2 353 narrations of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam and 160 sayings of the respected Sahabah totaling to 2 513 narrations in all.
Bukhari Shareef has been set apart from other compilations, gaining a distinctive honour due to the following reasons :
1. Whilst Imam Bukhari (R.A) was engaged in the writing of Bukhari Shareef, if the need arose to stop work for a period of time, then he would continue his work only after writing ‘Bismillah’ which is the reason why ‘ Bismillah’ has been found to be written in between in many places.
2. At the end of all chapters Imam Bukhari (R.A) has concluded by use of a word within the sentence so as to give one a point to ponder upon and hopefully so that one becomes more aware of the primary objective of life. e.g. after the first chapter he has included a word which brings one to think of their short life in this world and of their death. His intention is that one reads Kitaabe-Bukhari with death in mind.
3. Imam Bukhari (R.A) has paid great attention towards the beginning and ending his kitaab with an appropriate hadith. For the first hadith narrated within the kitaab is based upon intention which gives one the opportunity to be sincere with himself as to what he intends to gain from studying the words of the Prophet Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam which have been narrated throughout the kitaab. Also the last chapter which Imam Bukhari (R.A) has chosen to end his kitaab with is ‘Kitaab-ul-Tauheed’ which gives one a whole host of words which may be said in order to praise the oneness of Allah; for it is this which is believed to be the sole aid for all humans when they shall find themselves in the unbearable position of being reckoned for their sins on the Day of Judgment.
Hadhrat Shaikh Moulana Muhammad Zakariyya (R.A) has summed up the above in these words,” Imam Bukhari (R.A) has commenced his kitaab with the hadeeth ‘ Innamal Aamaal….’ and concluded it with ‘Kalimataan.